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What is ADHD?


One of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects children’s ability to pay attention, self-regulate, or control impulsive behaviour or over-activity. 


This charity’s website is very useful, as it’s created by people with ADHD for people with ADHD.


What is Asperger’s?


Asperger’s syndrome – or, to give it its full name, Asperger’s pervasive developmental disorder – is related to autism. Children with Asperger’s find it difficult to relate to others socially and their thinking patterns and behaviour can seem rigid and repetitive. 


Check out this super resource that gives more information about the disorder and characteristics to look out for.


What is autism/ASD?


Autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are terms that can be used interchangeably. Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that often appears in the early years of childhood. Typically, the condition affects a child’s social skills, communication, relationships and self-regulation. Each autistic child is different, and the condition is defined by a certain set of behaviours which affect individuals in various ways – this is what is meant when someone is referred to as being ‘on the spectrum’. Currently, there is no known single cause of autism, but an early diagnosis can help those with the condition receive the support they need to live their lives fully. 


The Autism Society website is a great resource and includes information on signs to look out for and additional help.


What is BPD? 


Borderline personality disorder (BPD) affects an individual’s mood and how they interact with others. It's the most commonly recognised personality disorder. Generally, someone with this condition will differ significantly from an average person when it comes to how they think, perceive, feel or relate to others.


The NHS website provides a great overview of BPD.


What is cerebral palsy?


Cerebral palsy refers to a group of lifelong disorders that affect a person's balance, movement, coordination and posture. Cerebral means ‘relating to the brain’. Palsy means ‘weakness in or problems with using the muscles’. 


What is dyscalculia?


Dyscalculia is a persistent difficulty in developing number sense and understanding mathematical content. These difficulties are not due to a lack of educational opportunities and evidence shows that outcomes are often below the individual’s age. Dyscalculia can occur across all ages and abilities.


The British Dyslexia Association website is an excellent resource for finding out more about dyscalculia. 


What is dyslexia?


Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that affects the areas of the brain that are in command of processing language. Characteristics of dyslexia include difficulties in phonological awareness, verbal memory and verbal processing speed, as well as difficulty with reading, spelling, motor skills, mental calculation, concentration and personal organisation. However, these characteristics are not by themselves markers of dyslexia. Dyslexia is best thought of as on a continuum; it’s not in a distinct category and there are no clear cut-off markers between grades of severity. 


This resource details the signs to look for that might indicate dyslexia, as well as details of diagnostic screening and services. 


What is dyspraxia?


Also known as developmental coordination disorder (DCD), dyspraxia doesn’t affect an individual’s intelligence; it is a condition that affects coordination skills, particularly activities that require balance, such as learning to drive a car or playing sports. 


What is Fragile X?


Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder. Individuals with Fragile X do not have the FRM1 gene, which is required for brain development. Typically, it is more severe in males than in females. Early signs include delayed speech and language past the age of two years.


The Fragile X Society provides information and support to families with children who have Fragile X. 


What is global development delay?


The term 'developmental delay' or 'global development delay' is used when a child takes longer to reach certain development milestones than other children their age. These milestones might include learning to walk or talk, movement skills, learning new things and interacting with others socially and emotionally. Someone with another condition, like Down’s syndrome or cerebral palsy, may also have global developmental delay.


The Mencap website has lots of information on the characteristics of global development delay and how to get support.


What is IDD?


IDD stands for intellectual and developmental disabilities. These are present at birth and can affect an individual’s physical, intellectual and/or emotional development. They can affect multiple body parts. 


Get more details about IDD.


What is PDA?


PDA stands for pathological demand avoidance. It’s main characteristic is an extreme avoidance of daily demands and expectations.

Useful links

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